حضرت حکیم عمر خیام رح
حکیم ابوالفتح عمربن ابراهیم الخیامی مشهور به “خیام” فیلسوف و ریاضیدان و منجم در سال ۴۳۹ هجری قمری در نیشابور زاده شد. وی در ترتیب رصد ملکشاهی و اصلاح تقویم جلالی همکاری داشت. وی اشعاری به زبان پارسی و تازی و کتابهایی نیز به هر دو زبان دارد. از آثار او در ریاضی و جبر و مقابله رساله فی شرح ما اشکل من مصادرات کتاب اقلیدس، رساله فی الاحتیال لمعرفه مقداری الذهب و الفضه فی جسم مرکب منهما، و لوازم الامکنه را میتوان نام برد. وی به سال ۵۲۶ هجری قمری درگذشت. رباعیات او شهرت جهانی دارد.
Brief Biography of Hakim Omar Khayyam of Naishapur
Omar Khayyam was an extremely talented and famous Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and poet. It is believed that Omar adopted the name ‘Khayyam’, as a mark of showering respect to his father’s occupation.
His work as an outstanding mathematician and astronomer had led to the reform of the ancient Muslim calendar. Also, the theorems given by him are still applied in mathematics. Despite his work in mathematics and astronomy, Khayyam is best known for his poems, especially as the author of his collection of quatrains, the “Rubaiyat”.
Few remember that he laid the foundation of modern algebra with his 1070 AD work, ‘Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra and Balancing’ and later contributed to the development of non-Euclidean geometry.
Reformation of the Persian solar calendar was another feather in his cap. The present day Georgian calendar is partly based on his work. In addition, he wrote numerous treatises on history, geography, mineralogy, mechanics and music, concurrently being master in jurisprudence and medicine. He was also a great teacher, teaching mathematics and philosophy of Avicenna in the last decades of his life.
Although he was a poet, he never published the Rubais he wrote. Discovered after his death, they remained neglected until Edward Fitzgerald translated them into English almost eight centuries after Khayyam’s birth.