احمدشاه ابدالی پسرمحمد زمان خان ابدالی در سال ١١٣٥ هجرى مطابق ١٧٢٢ميلادى درهرات متولد شده و هنوز يکساله نشده بود که پدرش محمد زمان خان درگذشت و ٨ يا ٩ ساله بود که با برادرش ذوالفقارخان از هرات به قندهار آمد و بلافاصله با برادرش يکجا به زندان شاه حسين هوتکى افتاد. او از سال ١٧٣١تا١٧٣٨ ميلادى زندانى بود.
تأسیس دولت معاصر افغانستان در 1747 است. وی از اکتوبر1747 تا جون 1773 پادشاهی کرد ویک قلمروی را بوجود آورد که از شمال به دریای آمو و از جنوب به دریای عمان و از غرب تا دریای خزر و از شرق به دریای سند محدود شده بود.
احمدشاه سیاستمدار مدبری بود و به زبان پشتو شعر میگفت و دیوانی هم از او برجای مانده است. او در سیاست و فرهنگ دارای مقام ارجمندی نزد افغانها میباشد.
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF AHMAD SHAH ABDALI
EARLY LIFE: Durrani was born in Herat or Multan in 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Begum.
Durrani was born as Ahmed Khan. Abdali’s father suffered “Persian captivity for many years” at Kirman before being released from prison in 1715. He lost his father during his infancy. Durrani’s forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the Alakozai tribe.
THE RISING: Nader Shah had been enlisting the Abdalis in his army since around 1729. After conquering Kandahar in 1738, Durrani and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shah’s administration.
Zulfiqar was made Governor of Mazandaran while Durrani remained working as Nader Shah’s personal attendant. Durrani proved himself in Nader Shah’s service and was promoted from a personal attendant (yasāwal) to command the Abdali Regiment. The Abdali Regiment was part
of Nader Shah’s military during his invasion of the Mughal Empire.
THE RISING: Popular history has it that the Shah could see the talent in his young commander. Later on, according to Pashtun legend, it is said that in Delhi Nader Shah summoned Durrani, and said, “Come forward Ahmad Abdali. Remember Ahmad Khan Abdali, that after me the Kingship will pass on to you. Nader Shah recruited him because of his “impressive personality and valour” also because of his “loyalty to the Persian monarch”.
SHAH: Nader Shah’s rule abruptly ended in June 1747 when he was assassinated by his own guards. Having served him so loyally, the Abdalis wept at having failed their leader, and headed back to Kandahar. On their way back to Kandahar, the Abdalis had “unanimously accepted” Durrani as their new leader. Hence, he “assumed the insignia of royalty” as the “sovereign ruler of Afghanistan”.
One of Durrani’s first acts as chief was to adopt the titles Padishah-i-Ghazi (“victorious emperor”), and Durr-i-Durrani (“pearl of pearls” or “pearl of the age”)
DURRAN EMPIRE: He began his military conquest by capturing Ghazni from the Ghiljis and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler, and thus strengthened his hold over Khorasan.
Apart from invading the Punjab region three times between the years 1747–1753, he captured Herat in 1750. Abdali invaded the Mughal Empire seven times from 1748 to 1767. He crossed the Khyber Pass in December 1747 with 40,000 troops for his first invasion of India. He occupied Peshawar without any opposition.
DURRANI EMPIRE: He first crossed the Indus River in 1748, the year after his ascension – his forces sacked and absorbed Lahore. The following year (1749), the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh and all of the Punjab including the vital trans Indus River to him.
Durrani and his forces turned westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nader Shah’s grandson, Shah Rukh.
The city fell to the Afghans in 1750, after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict; the Afghan forces then pushed on into present-day Iran, capturing Nishapur and Mashhad in 1751.
THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT: To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India and brought northwest of India up to Peshawar under Maratha rule. Thus, upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Durrani chose to return to India and confront the Maratha forces to regain northwestern part of the subcontinent.
By 1759, Durrani and his army had reached Lahore and were poised to confront the Marathas. By 1760, the Maratha groups had coalesced into a big enough army under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau. Once again, Panipat was the scene of a battle for control of northern India.
The Third battle of Panipat was fought between Durrani’s Afghan forces and the Maratha forces in January 1761, and resulted in a decisive Durrani victory.
DEATH: Durrani died on 16 October 1772 in Kandahar Province. He was buried in the city of Kandahar adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak, where a large tomb was built. Durrani’s victory over the Marathas influenced the history of the subcontinent and, in particular, British policy in the region.
His refusal to continue his campaigns deeper into India prevented a clash with the East India Company. His successors, beginning with his son Timur and ending with Shuja Shah Durrani, proved largely incapable of governing the last Afghan empire and faced with advancing enemies on all sides.